Cæsium is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55.


It has a melting point of 28°C (82°F), which means it will be liquid on a warm summer day, and revert to a solid later that night after the ambient temperature cools. Cæsium is just one of five elemental metals that are liquids at or near room temperature.


Its name comes from the Latin word for sky-blue because when burned, cæsium turns the flame a lovely blue colour.

Since the 1990s, the largest application of the element has been as caesium formate for drilling fluids, but it has a range of applications in the production of electricity, in electronics, and in chemistry. The radioactive isotope caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years and is used in medical applications, industrial gauges, and hydrology. Nonradioactive caesium compounds are only mildly toxic, but the pure metal’s tendency to react explosively with water means that caesium is considered a hazardous material, and the radioisotopes present a significant health and ecological hazard in the environment.

Caesium is also know for its use in atomic clocks and use the electromagnetic transitions in the hyperfine structure of caesium-133 atoms as a reference point. The first accurate caesium clock was built by Louis Essen in 1955 at the National Physical Laboratory in the UK.

These clocks measure frequency with an error of 2 to 3 parts in 1014, which corresponding to an accuracy of 2 nanoseconds per day, or one second in 1.4 million years. The latest versions are more accurate than 1 part in 1015, about 1 second in 20 million years.  The Caesium standard is the primary standard for standards-compliant time and frequency measurements. Caesium clocks regulate the timing of cell phone networks and the Internet.

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On this day

In 1980, following a weeklong series of earthquakes and smaller explosions of ash and smoke, the long-dormant Mount St. Helens volcano erupted in Washington state, U.S., hurling ash 15,000 feet into the air and setting off mudslides and avalanches.

Mount St Helens


An earthquake at 8:32:17 a.m. on Sunday, May 18, 1980, caused the entire weakened north face to slide away, creating the largest landslide ever recorded. This allowed the partly molten, high-pressure gas- and steam-rich rock in the volcano to suddenly explode northwards toward Spirit Lake in a hot mix of lava and pulverized older rock.

Approximately 57 people were killed directly.  Hundreds of square miles were reduced to wasteland, causing over a billion U.S. dollars in damage, thousands of animals were killed, and Mount St. Helens was left with a crater on its north side.

Spirit Lake

Lakes nearest to Mount St. Helens have been partly covered with felled trees for more than thirty years. This photograph was taken in 2012.

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Mice with missing lipid-modifying enzyme heal better after heart attack

Two immune responses are important for recovery after a heart attack – an acute inflammatory response that attracts leukocyte immune cells to remove dead tissue, followed by a resolving response that allows healing.
The human heart by Patrick J. Lynch, medical illustrator (Patrick J. Lynch, medical illustrator) [CC BY 2.5 (], via Wikimedia Commons
Failure of the resolving response can allow a persistent, low-grade nonresolving inflammation, which can lead to progressive acute or chronic heart failure. Despite medical advances, 2 to 17 percent of patients die within one year after a heart attack due to failure to resolve inflammation. More than 50 percent die within five years.
Using a mouse heart attack model, Ganesh Halade, Ph.D., and his University of Alabama at Birmingham colleagues have shown that knocking out one particular lipid-modifying enzyme, along with a short-term dietary excess of a certain lipid, can improve post-heart attack healing and clear inflammation. Halade, an assistant professor in the UAB Department of Medicine, hopes that future physicians will be able to use knowledge from studies like his to boost healing in patients after heart attacks and prevent heart failure.
“Our goal is healing, and we are reaching that goal,” he said of efforts in the UAB Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
Why are lipids and lipid-modifying enzymes important in inflammation and resolving inflammation? Three key lipid modifying enzymes in the body change the lipids into various signaling agents. Some of these signaling agents regulate the triggering of inflammation, and others promote the reparative pathway.
The lipids modified by the enzymes are two types of essential fatty acids that come from food, since mammals cannot synthesize them. One is n-6 or omega-6 fatty acids, and the other type is n-3 or omega-3 fatty acids. The balance of these two types is important.
The Mediterranean diet, with a near balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, promotes heart health. The Western diet, with large amounts of omega-6 fatty acids that greatly exceed the levels of omega-3 fatty acids, can lead to heart disease.
The three main lipid-modifying enzymes compete with each other to modify whatever fatty acids are available from the diet. So, Halade and colleagues asked, what will happen if we knock out one of the key enzymes, the 12/15 lipoxygenase?
They reasoned that this would increase the metabolites produced by the other two main enzymes, cyclooxygenase and cytochrome P450 because they no longer had to compete with 12/15 lipoxygenase for lipids to modify. This might be a benefit because those signaling lipids produced through the cyclooxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways were already known to lead to major resolution promotion factors for post-heart attack healing.
The UAB researchers found that knocking out the 12/15 lipoxygenase and feeding the mice a short-term excess of polyunsaturated fatty acids led to increased leukocyte clearance after experimental heart attack, meaning less chronic inflammation. It also improved heart function, increased the levels of bioactive lipids during the reparative phase of healing, and led to higher levels of reparative cytokine markers. Additionally, the heart muscle showed less of the fibrosis that is a factor in heart failure.
Besides congestive heart failure, persistent inflammation aggravates a vicious cycle in many cardiovascular diseases, including atherogenesis, atheroprogression, atherosclerosis and peripheral artery disease.
Halade says further mechanistic studies are warranted to develop novel targets for treatment and to find therapies that support the onset of left ventricle healing and prevent heart failure pathology.
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On this day in science history: Pioneer 10 crossed the orbit of Pluto

In 1983, Pioneer 10, an
American space probe, crossed the orbit of Pluto, the outermost planet, to
continue its voyage into the universe beyond our solar system. This space
exploration project was conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center in
California, and the space probe was manufactured by TRW Inc.
Pioneer 10 was launched on
March 2, 1972, by an Atlas-Centaur expendable vehicle from Cape Canaveral,
Florida. Between July 15, 1972, and February 15, 1973, it became the first
spacecraft to traverse the asteroid belt. Photography of Jupiter began on November
6, 1973, at a range of 25,000,000 kilometres (16,000,000 mi), and a total of
about 500 images were transmitted. The closest approach to the planet was on
December 4, 1973, at a range of 132,252 kilometres (82,178 mi). During the
mission, the on-board instruments were used to study the asteroid belt, the
environment around Jupiter, the solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far
reaches of the Solar System and heliosphere.
Artist’s impression of Pioneer 10’s flyby of Jupiter, by Rick Guidice [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
So, what do we know about
Jupiter is the fifth planet
from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a
mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the
other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants;
the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune are ice giants. Jupiter has
been known to astronomers since antiquity. The Romans named it after their
god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent
magnitude of −2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, and making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the
Moon and Venus.
Jupiter is primarily composed
of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises
only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of
heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a
well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet’s shape
is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the
equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at
different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting
boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is
known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by
telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful
magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean
moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these,
has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.
Radio communications were lost
with Pioneer 10 on January 23, 2003, because of the loss of electric power for
its radio transmitter, with the probe at a distance of 12 billion kilometers
(80 AU) from Earth.
Jupiter has been explored on
several other occasions by robotic spacecraft, such as the Voyager flyby
missions and later, the Galileo orbiter. In late February 2007, Jupiter was
visited by the New Horizons probe, which used Jupiter’s gravity to increase its
speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto. The latest probe to visit the
planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016. Future
targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered
liquid ocean of its moon Europa.
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Mission control: salty diet makes you hungry, not thirsty

We’ve all heard it: eating salty
foods makes you thirstier. But what sounds like good nutritional advice turns
out to be an old-wives’ tale. In a study carried out during a simulated mission
to Mars, an international group of scientists has found exactly the opposite to
be true. “Cosmonauts” who ate more salt retained more water, weren’t
as thirsty, and needed more energy.
Salt shaker, by Dubravko Sorić SoraZG on Flickr [CC BY 2.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons
For some reason, no one had ever
carried out a long-term study to determine the relationship between the amount
of salt in a person’s diet and his drinking habits. Scientists have known that
increasing a person’s salt intake stimulates the production of more urine – it
has simply been assumed that the extra fluid comes from drinking. Not so fast!
say researchers from the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Max Delbrück Center
for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Vanderbilt University and colleagues around the
world. Recently they took advantage of a simulated mission to Mars to put the
old adage to the test. Their conclusions appear in two papers in the current
issue of The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
What does salt have to do with
Mars? Nothing, really, except that on a long space voyage conserving every drop
of water might be crucial. A connection between salt intake and drinking could
affect your calculations – you wouldn’t want an interplanetary traveler to die
because he liked an occasional pinch of salt on his food. The real interest in
the simulation, however, was that it provided an environment in which every
aspect of a person’s nutrition, water consumption, and salt intake could be
controlled and measured.
The studies were carried out by
Natalia Rakova (MD, PhD) of the Charité and MDC and her colleagues. The
subjects were two groups of 10 male volunteers sealed into a mock spaceship for
two simulated flights to Mars. The first group was examined for 105 days; the
second over 205 days. They had identical diets except that over periods lasting
several weeks, they were given three different levels of salt in their food.
The results confirmed that eating
more salt led to a higher salt content in urine – no surprise there. Nor was
there any surprise in a correlation between amounts of salt and overall
quantity of urine. But the increase wasn’t due to more drinking – in fact, a
salty diet caused the subjects to drink less. Salt was triggering a mechanism
to conserve water in the kidneys.
Before the study, the prevailing
hypothesis had been that the charged sodium and chloride ions in salt grabbed
onto water molecules and dragged them into the urine. The new results showed
something different: salt stayed in the urine, while water moved back into the
kidney and body. This was completely puzzling to Prof. Jens Titze, MD of the
University of Erlangen and Vanderbilt University Medical Center and his
colleagues. “What alternative driving force could make water move
back?” Titze asked.
Experiments in mice hinted that
urea might be involved. This substance is formed in muscles and the liver as a
way of shedding nitrogen. In mice, urea was accumulating in the kidney, where
it counteracts the water-drawing force of sodium and chloride. But synthesizing
urea takes a lot of energy, which explains why mice on a high-salt diet were
eating more. Higher salt didn’t increase their thirst, but it did make them
hungrier. Also the human “cosmonauts” receiving a salty diet
complained about being hungry.
The project revises scientists’
view of the function of urea in our bodies. “It’s not solely a waste
product, as has been assumed,” Prof. Friedrich C. Luft, MD of the Charité
and MDC says. “Instead, it turns out to be a very important osmolyte – a
compound that binds to water and helps transport it. Its function is to keep
water in when our bodies get rid of salt. Nature has apparently found a way to
conserve water that would otherwise be carried away into the urine by
The new findings change the way
scientists have thought about the process by which the body achieves water
homeostasis – maintaining a proper amount and balance. That must happen whether
a body is being sent to Mars or not. “We now have to see this process as a
concerted activity of the liver, muscle and kidney,” says Jens Titze.
“While we didn’t directly
address blood pressure and other aspects of the cardiovascular system, it’s
also clear that their functions are tightly connected to water homeostasis and
energy metabolism.”
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The chemistry behind the new one pound coin

We all know that money makes the world go around, but do you know what goes into it? The new pound coin arrived on 28th March, largely as a preventative measure against counterfeiting.  Take a look at the graphic below for more information about its composition.
Source: Compound Interest
Why the new coin is harder to counterfeit
  1. 12-sided – its distinctive shape means it stands out by sight and by touch
  2. Bimetallic – The outer ring is gold coloured (nickel-brass) and the inner ring is silver coloured (nickel-plated alloy)
  3. Latent image – it has an image like a hologram that changes from a ‘£’ symbol to the number ‘1’ when the coin is seen from different angles
  4. Micro-lettering – around the rim on the heads side of the coin tiny lettering reads: ONE POUND. On the tails side you can find the year the coin was produced
  5. Milled edges – it has grooves on alternate sides
  6. Hidden high security feature – an additional security feature is built into the coin to protect it from counterfeiting but details have not been revealed


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New device produces hydrogen peroxide for water purification

Limited access to clean water is a major issue for billions of people in the developing world, where water sources are often contaminated with urban, industrial and agricultural waste. Many disease-causing organisms and organic pollutants can be quickly removed from water using hydrogen peroxide without leaving any harmful residual chemicals. However, producing and distributing hydrogen peroxide is a challenge in many parts of the world.
Purified drinking water
Now scientists at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have created a small device for hydrogen peroxide production that could be powered by renewable energy sources, like conventional solar panels.
“The idea is to develop an electrochemical cell that generates hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and water on site, and then use that hydrogen peroxide in groundwater to oxidize organic contaminants that are harmful for humans to ingest,” said Chris Hahn, a SLAC associate staff scientist.
Their results were reported March 1 in Reaction Chemistry and Engineering.
The project was a collaboration between three research groups at the SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, which is jointly run by SLAC and Stanford University.
“Most of the projects here at SUNCAT follow a similar path,” said Zhihua (Bill) Chen, a graduate student in the group of Tom Jaramillo, an associate professor at SLAC and Stanford. “They start from predictions based on theory, move to catalyst development and eventually produce a prototype device with a practical application.”
In this case, researchers in the theory group led by SLAC/Stanford Professor Jens Nørskov used computational modeling, at the atomic scale, to investigate carbon-based catalysts capable of lowering the cost and increasing the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide production. Their study revealed that most defects in these materials are naturally selective for generating hydrogen peroxide, and some are also highly active. Since defects can be naturally formed in the carbon-based materials during the growth process, the key finding was to make a material with as many defects as possible.
“My previous catalyst for this reaction used platinum, which is too expensive for decentralized water purification,” said research engineer Samira Siahrostami. “The beautiful thing about our cheaper carbon-based material is that it has a huge number of defects that are active sites for catalyzing hydrogen peroxide production.”
Stanford graduate student Shucheng Chen, who works with Stanford Professor Zhenan Bao, then prepared the carbon catalysts and measured their properties. With the help of SSRL staff scientists Dennis Nordlund and Dimosthenis Sokaras, these catalysts were also characterized using X-rays at SLAC’s Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), a DOE Office of Science User Facility.
“We depended on our experiments at SSRL to better understand our material’s structure and check that it had the right kinds of defects,” Shucheng Chen said.
Finally, he passed the catalyst along to his roommate Bill Chen, who designed, built and tested their device.
“Our device has three compartments,” Bill Chen explained. “In the first chamber, oxygen gas flows through the chamber, interfaces with the catalyst made by Shucheng and is reduced into hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide then enters the middle chamber, where it is stored in a solution.” In a third chamber, another catalyst converts water into oxygen gas, and the cycle starts over.
Separating the two catalysts with a middle chamber makes the device cheaper, simpler and more robust than separating them with a standard semi-permeable membrane, which can be attacked and degraded by the hydrogen peroxide.
The device can also run on renewable energy sources available in villages. The electrochemical cell is essentially an electrical circuit that operates with a small voltage applied across it. The reaction in chamber one puts electrons into oxygen to make hydrogen peroxide, which is balanced by a counter reaction in chamber three that takes electrons from water to make oxygen – matching the current and completing the circuit. Since the device requires only about 1.7 volts applied between the catalysts, it can run on a battery or two standard solar panels.
The research groups are now working on a higher-capacity device.
Currently the middle chamber holds only about 10 microliters of hydrogen peroxide; they want to make it bigger. They’re also trying to continuously circulate the liquid in the middle chamber to rapidly pump hydrogen peroxide out, so the size of the storage chamber no longer limits production.
They would also like to make hydrogen peroxide in higher concentrations. However, only a few milligrams are needed to treat one liter of water, and the current prototype already produces a sufficient concentration, which is one-tenth the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide that you buy at the store for your basic medical needs.
In the long term, the team wants to change the alkaline environment inside the cell to a neutral one that’s more like water. This would make it easier for people to use, because the hydrogen peroxide could be mixed with drinking water directly without having to neutralize it first.
The team members are excited about their results and feel they are on the right track to developing a practical device.
“Currently it’s just a prototype, but I personally think it will shine in the area of decentralized water purification for the developing world,” said Bill Chen. “It’s like a magic box. I hope it can become a reality.”
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On this day in science history: polyethylene was discovered

Polyethylene was first synthesized by the German chemist Hans von Pechmann, who prepared it by accident in 1898 while investigating diazomethane. When his colleagues Eugen Bamberger and Friedrich Tschirner characterized the white, waxy substance that he had created, they recognized that it contained long –CH2– chains and termed it polymethylene.
Polythylene balls, by Lluis tgn (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons
The first industrially practical polyethylene synthesis (diazomethane is a notoriously unstable substance that is generally avoided in industrial application) was discovered in 1933 by Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson, again by accident, at the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) works in Northwich, England.  Upon applying extremely high pressure (several hundred atmospheres) to a mixture of ethylene and benzaldehyde they again produced a white, waxy material. Because the reaction had been initiated by trace oxygen contamination in their apparatus, the experiment was, at first, difficult to reproduce. It was not until 1935 that another ICI chemist, Michael Perrin, developed this accident into a reproducible high-pressure synthesis for polyethylene that became the basis for industrial LDPE production beginning in 1939. Because polyethylene was found to have very low-loss properties at very high frequency radio waves, commercial distribution in Britain was suspended on the outbreak of World War II, secrecy imposed, and the new process was used to produce insulation for UHF and SHF coaxial cables of radar sets. During World War II, further research was done on the ICI process and in 1944 Bakelite Corporation at Sabine, Texas, and Du Pont at Charleston, West Virginia, began large-scale commercial production under license from ICI.
The breakthrough landmark in the commercial production of polyethylene began with the development of catalyst that promote the polymerization at mild temperatures and pressures. The first of these was a chromium trioxide–based catalyst discovered in 1951 by Robert Banks and J. Paul Hogan at Phillips Petroleum. In 1953 the German chemist Karl Ziegler developed a catalytic system based on titanium halides and organoaluminium compounds that worked at even milder conditions than the Phillips catalyst. The Phillips catalyst is less expensive and easier to work with, however, and both methods are heavily used industrially. By the end of the 1950s both the Phillips- and Ziegler-type catalysts were being used for HDPE production. In the 1970s, the Ziegler system was improved by the incorporation of magnesium chloride. Catalytic systems based on soluble catalysts, the metallocenes, were reported in 1976 by Walter Kaminsky and Hansjörg Sinn. The Ziegler- and metallocene-based catalysts families have proven to be very flexible at copolymerizing ethylene with other olefins and have become the basis for the wide range of polyethylene resins available today, including very low density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene. Such resins, in the form of UHMWPE fibers, have (as of 2005) begun to replace aramids in many high-strength applications.
One of the main problems of polyethylene is that without special treatment it’s not readily biodegradable, and thus accumulates. In Japan, getting rid of plastics in an environmentally friendly way was the major problem discussed until the Fukushima disaster in 2011. It was listed as a $90 billion market for solutions. Since 2008, Japan has rapidly increased the recycling of plastics, but still has a large amount of plastic wrapping which goes to waste.
In May 2008, Daniel Burd, a 16-year-old Canadian, won the Canada-Wide Science Fair in Ottawa after discovering that Pseudomonas fluorescens, with the help of Sphingomonas, can degrade over 40% of the weight of plastic bags in less than three months.
The thermophilic bacterium Brevibacillus borstelensis (strain 707) was isolated from a soil sample and found to use low-density polyethylene as a sole carbon source when incubated together at 50°C. Biodegradation increased with time exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
In 2010, a Japanese researcher, Akinori Ito, released the prototype of a machine which creates oil from polyethylene using a small, self-contained vapor distillation process.
In 2014, a Chinese researcher discovered that Indian mealmoth larvae could metabolize polyethylene from observing that plastic bags at his home had small holes in them. Deducing that the hungry larvae must have digested the plastic somehow, he and his team analyzed their gut bacteria and found a few that could use plastic as their only carbon source. Not only could the bacteria from the guts of the Plodia interpunctella moth larvae metabolize polyethylene, they degraded it significantly, dropping its tensile strength by 50%, its mass by 10% and the molecular weights of its polymeric chains by 13%.
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Why water splashes: New theory reveals secrets

New research from the University of Warwick generates fresh insight into how a raindrop or spilt coffee splashes.
Dr James Sprittles from the Mathematics Institute has created a new theory to explain exactly what happens – in the tiny space between a drop of water and a surface – to cause a splash.
Water splash
When a drop of water falls, it is prevented from spreading smoothly across a surface by a microscopically thin layer of air that it can’t push aside – so instead of wetting the surface, parts of the liquid fly off, and a splash is generated.
A layer of air 1 micron in size – fifty times smaller than the width of a human hair – can obstruct a 1mm drop of water which is one thousand times larger.
This is comparable to a 1cm layer of air stopping a tsunami wave spreading across a beach.
Dr Sprittles has established exactly what happens to this miniscule layer of air during the super-fast action by developing a new theory, capturing its microscopic dynamics – factoring in different physical conditions, such as liquid viscosity and air pressure, to predict whether splashes will occur or not.
The lower the air pressure, the easier the air can escape from the squashed layer – giving less resistance to the water drop – enabling the suppression of splashes. This is why drops are less likely to splash at the top of mountains, where the air pressure is reduced.
Understanding the conditions that cause splashing enables researchers to find out how to prevent it – leading to potential breakthroughs in various fields.
In 3D printing, liquid drops can form the building blocks of tailor-made products such as hearing aids; stopping splashing is key to making products of the desired quality.
Splashes are also a crucial part of forensic science – whether blood drops have splashed or not provides insight into where they came from, which can be vital information in a criminal investigation.
Dr Sprittles comments:
“You would never expect a seemingly simple everyday event to exhibit such complexity. The air layer’s width is so small that it is similar to the distance air molecules travel between collisions, so that traditional models are inaccurate and a microscopic theory is required.
“Most promisingly, the new theory should have applications to a wide range of related phenomena, such as in climate science – to understand how water drops collide during the formation of clouds or to estimate the quantity of gas being dragged into our oceans by rainfall.”
The research, ‘Kinetic Effects in Dynamic Wetting’, is published in Physical Review Letters.
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Looking for signs of the first stars

It may soon be possible to detect the universe’s first stars by looking for the blue colour they emit on explosion.
The universe was dark and filled with hydrogen and helium for 100 million years following the Big Bang. Then, the first stars appeared, and metals were created by thermonuclear fusion reactions within stars.
Stars in the sky, ESA/Hubble [CC BY 4.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons
These metals were spread around the galaxies by exploding stars or ‘supernovae’. Studying first-generation supernovae, which are more than 13 billion years old, provides a glimpse into what the universe might have looked like when the first stars, galaxies and supermassive black holes formed. But to-date, it has been difficult to distinguish a first-generation supernova from a later one.
New research, led by Alexey Tolstov from the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, has identified characteristic differences between these supernovae types after experimenting with supernovae models based on observations of extremely metal-poor stars.
Similar to all supernovae, the luminosity of metal-poor supernovae shows a characteristic rise to a peak brightness followed by a decline. The phenomenon starts when a star explodes with a bright flash, caused by a shock wave emerging from its surface after its core collapses. This is followed by a long ‘plateau’ phase of almost constant luminosity lasting several months, followed by a slow exponential decay.
The team calculated the light curves of metal-poor blue versus metal-rich red supergiant stars. The shock wave and plateau phases are shorter, bluer and fainter in metal-poor supernovae. The team concluded that the colour blue could be used as an indicator of a first-generation supernova. In the near future, new, large telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope scheduled to be launched in 2018, will be able to detect the first explosions of stars and may be able to identify them using this method.
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